Swimming – Halliwick Approach

Lecturer: Jyrki Vilhu

The main objectives of Halliwick are firstly to find a suitable floating position for everybody. Everybody should learn to act independently in the water and find swimming movements that are possible for her/him. Every swimmer should get used to normal temperature and depth of a swimming pool. As well it is important to get in and out of the pool individually.

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Some charasteristics are typical like each swimmer has her/his own assistant. Teacher should have knowledge of hydrodynamics and to identify every swimmers personal needs and possibilities. No dry training nor flotation aids are used. It is important to act in groups and lots of games are used.

Ten point programme: 1. Mental adjustment 2. Disengagement 3. Transversal rotation control 4. Sagittal rotation control 5. Longitudinal rotation control 6. Combined rotation control 7. Upthrust 8. Balance in stillness 9. Turbulent gliding 10. Simple progression and a basic swimming movements


Wheelchair Dance

Lecturer: Tiina Sihvola

Wheelchair dance is for people with a physical impairment that affects the lower limbs. It is sport for all and a competitive sport. Since 1998 the sport has been governed by the IPC. Wheelchair dance can be danced in a group, in pairs or solo. Dancing in pairs: – “Combi” style; wheelchair user dancing with an able bodied (standing) partner. – Duo style; two wheelchair users dancing together Freestyle dancing includes for example country dance, flamenco, jazz dance, ballet etc.

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Sitting Dances Sit dancing enables the elderly people with and without disabilities to enjoy dancing while sitting down. Sitting dances stimulates social interaction, memory, self-expression, coordination, mobility and circulation. The dances are based on traditional folk dances and popular songs from around the world.


Freedom on Snow

Lecturer: Tiina Laiho

People practice alpine skiing and snowboarding on every continent. Even though the global skier and snowboarder numbers are not on a rise, more and more people with disabilities are getting interested in how to ski or ride. With the help of skilled instructors and special equipment individuals with spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, visual and hearing impairments and a wide variety of other disabilities can enjoy the slopes.

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Special teaching techniques and equipment maximize each participant’s potential for success. There are six different disciplines: developmental, visually impaired, mono-ski, bi-ski, 3-track and 4-track. Devices like mono-skis, bi-skis and outriggers allow beginners to quickly feel the freedom of gliding down the mountain while those with more skill and determination can proceed to the challenging slopes. Feeling of freedom is commonly said to be the best part of the experience.


Sitting Volleyball

Lecturer: Jyrki Vilhu

Sitting volleyball can be played by people both with and without a disability, people of all ages and genders. At the same time it is sport for all and a Paralympic sport. History: Sitting volleyball was developed around 1956 in the Netherlands. It has been a Paralympic sports since 1980 (Arnhem, the Netherlands). Who can play: Anyone, who can sit and have at least some function in the upper limbs. In national series all can play in many countries (e.g. Finland and the Netherlands). For international championships a player needs to have a classification.

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Rule modifications: Most of the rules are the same as in mainstream volleyball. Main exceptions: *court is smaller (5×10 m) *net is lower (105-115 cm) and more narrow (80 cm) *when striking the ball you need to have a contact to the floor with some part of the upper body *serve can be blocked


AN INTRODUCTION TO ADAPTED ALPINE SKIING

Lecturer: Tiina Laiho

Adapted alpine skiing provides a sense of freedom which is hard to duplicate in other sports. It helps physical fitness, balance and social skills, just to name a few benefits.  It can be said that downhill skiing is truly a sport for all. Adapted skiing and snowboarding uses special equipment to support all kinds of skiers with disabilities to enjoy and benefit the winter fun.  Once a disabled skier learns how to use the equipment, the whole family can be together on the hill. It is a win-win situation for the disabled person and for the family.


Sherborne Developmental Movement

Lecturer: Prof. Dilara Özer, Ph. D

Veronica Sherborne gratuaded from the Belford College of PE. At that time the teaching style was strongly didactic and the role of PE teacher was commander rather than educator. She developed her teaching style depending on Laban’s movement principles. Laban’s movement principles provided a framework for teachers both the successfully observe movement and also to teach movement holistically, creatively and inclusively.

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It was upon these principles of movement that Sherborne developed her movement work which she used with the students. The main principles are centred around body, space, dynamics and relations. Both Sherborne and Laban had realised the psychological effect of movement many years before research in Sport and Exercise Psychology had been considered. Her method stimulates the developmental possibilities of a child or adult by using movements. Sherborne Developmental movement which have their origins in the normal patterns of human development. has been used as a therapeutic intervention for children with special needs. This course involves both theoritical and practical part of teaching of the SDM.


SITTING BODY PERCUSSION

Lecturer: Viviana Zito

Since the dawn of time, man has accompanied his sounds, songs and dances with a strong beating of his feet and clapping of his palms. Also now, people generally mark out the rhythmic with spontaneous beats, claps and stamps on his movements. Percussion instruments produce their sound when a player hits, scrapes, rubs or shakes them to produce vibrations. These techniques can also be applied to the human body. This is called: Body Percussion.

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This subject, therefore, possesses an anthropological, sociological and biological foundation dating back to prehistoric times and covers a wide range of investigation, although it has a lack a wealth of documented studies. Body percussion as also a therapeutic resource: the ability to work in a group or community, to play and sing in unison, to play music on one another, to look at one another, and work in a non-hierarchical way and to feel supported by a group of classmates, all  go towards reinforcing many therapeutic aspects which can be modified in relation to each particular illness This lesson will introduce elementary rhythm pattern  using the body as an instrument. Activities included in these lessons are a beat tapping chart, rhythm tapping chart on desks, an identifying/labeling the rhythm notation of the song activity, as well as using objects (plastic paper) in different ways.

Contents:

  • Theory: scientific resources, categories (stamping, patting, clicking, clapping, etc.)
  • Hand clapping song in pairs “Chocolate”. Couple variations.
  • Body percussion: basic exercises, speed increase exercise, “”, “Pum-pa Pum pu-pà…”, “Brest/finger/hand…”, basketball.
  • Basic Tutting and boxing: tetris
  • Cup song. Team  variations.

Ripetizione: Pump pa pump um pa, Vivi has a hat/school… Basket ball – petto – cup coreography – cup in circle – cup with different song and choreography –

Materials:

  • 2/3 plastic glasses for each student
  • School desks. 1 desk for one or 2 student max.
  • A cd player
  • A screen where we can see short videos

Theory:

  • Ppt body percussion theory
  • Videos to show to the students

Cerebral Palsy and sport

Lecturer: Mirela Hristova

CEREBRAL PALSY

  • Definition and clinical picture of CP
  • Epidemiologi, etiology and clinical picture.
  • Physical examination and goals of the physical examination
  • Making the diagnosis. Normal development of the child.
  • Examinations
  • Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)

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REHABILITATION

  • Definition.
  • Planning Rehabilitation and factors influencing rehabilitation outcome.
  • Components of child rehabilitation: Main aim; Goals of the Rehabilitation; Methods:
  • Therapeutic exercises elements of sports and sports/adapted sports that help the child learn how to sit, stand, walk and use his extremityes for function. The child also learns how to use his remaining potential to compensate for the movements he cannot perform. Decreasing spasticity, gaining muscle strength and improving joint alignment decrease deformity.


European policy in disability sport

Lecturer: Irina Radevska

The right of people with disabilities to do sports without any type of discrimination is considered by EU policies one of the basic rights for effective inclusion and quality of life of disabled people. EU policy documents in this field are not to be separated from the international movement for ensuring better conditions for life and participation of disabled people. For more than 50 years participation in sports has been declared one of the most powerful means of fighting against discrimination.

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The title of the Council of Europe’s Charter of 1975 became motto of this movement – Sport for All. The leading world organizations develop political platforms with the aim to direct and support national efforts in involving disabled people in social participation – United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union through documents that are complementary, note progress and set new goals. Professionals involved in all different kinds of work in the field of disabled sporthave to be informed about the world policies and practices in order to unify, compare and assure sustainability of their efforts. They have to know the existing international programs to use the opportunities to develop initiatives for disabled sportspeople on international project stage.


Inclusive physical education- principles of adaptation and competences of teachers. Levels of support in integrated activities

Lecturer: Marina Toshkova-Asenova

This intensive educational program is dedicated to all physical educators who are willing to take a risk and try something new that is outside their comfort zone so that the students they serve can acquire physical and motor skills that will enrich and enhance the quality of their lives. The intent is not to repeat what has already been covered in the other courses, but to focus on how this content should be used to create and implement appropriate programs for students with disabilities. The challenge is how to organize all of this information in a meaningful way so that you are sure you are meeting the needs of your students.

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In many cases regular physical education teachers are not equipped with the knowledge and skills to effectively include children with disabilities into their classes. This course offers some basic information on how the physical education teacher can ensure that services are available to everyone they teach. The goal of our education is to provide you with a process you can use to integrate what you have learned in a systematic way so that you can make informed decisions that result in programs that address the unique needs of all of your students during the physical education lessons so that they can all achieve their potential and the benefits of physical education.


Presentation of the sport orienteering as a recreational sport both for physical and mentally disabled people

Lecturer: Petya Koseva

Introduction of trail orienteering. Conventional orienteering combines fast running with precise navigation, typically through forests or over moorland. Trail Orienteering (Trail O) is a discipline of the sport designed so that people with disabilities could have meaningful orienteering competitions. It completely eliminates the element of speed over the ground, but makes the map-interpretation element much harder. Able-bodied people can compete on equal terms with the disabled.

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Students will gain the knowledge and skills necessary to adapt orienteering activities for people with disabilities. The practice will be focused on the strategies for adapting the trial orienteering for mentally disabled children.


WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL AND UNIFIWED BASKETBALL

Lecturer: ROSSITZA TZAROVA

Students will be introduced with the history and the development of basketball for persons with disabilities. Wheelchair basketball is basketball played by people in wheelchairs and is considered one of the major disabled sports practiced. The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) is the governing body for this sport. It is recognized by the International Paralympic Committee.

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Unified basketball – This innovative program is bringing young people together, both with and without disabilities, and it’s been a life-changing experience for the family, friends, community leaders and sports fans. Students will learn some basic sport skills and will be introduced with the principles of the team work. Successful students will be able to apply in the practice some models of potential modifications and adaptations related to equipment, rules, environment and instructions.


APA and ageing – outdoor activities for elderly persons

Lecturer: Stefka Djobova, Petya Koseva

Ageing is undoubtedly an issue that more than ever stands in interest. In the past 50 years, one of the most important changes within Europe has been the rapid increase in the number of people living into their 70s, 80s and beyond. Most of those ageing people will have some physical or mental disability, regardless the fact if they acquired this disability at birth, later in life or through the normal process of ageing.

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Recently, the traditional disability model has changed to agree with the suggestion that disability is not only the consequence of a disease or an accident but also of lifestyle choices. Ageing is a process which brings gains as well as losses: gains, because it brings maturity, wisdom and respect; and losses, because it often affects and restricts the physical and the psychological level and devalues the social perceptions of people who are growing older. Numerous research projects have successfully demonstrated that the benefits of planned physical activities for health are indisputable. As older adults are the fastest growing age group, attention needs to be given to them as a special population with specific needs in the area of exercise and sport. Disabled people are ageing, ageing people are getting disabled. Summer outdoors for elderly – Enjoying a breezy spring day or the warm summer temperatures should not be a distant memory for the elderly persons. After being cooped up in the house for possibly months at a time, senior adults can breathe in the fresh air, even if they are experiencing mobility problems. It is always worthy to get outside and be active, no matter of previous experience and current functional status. Whether playing outdoor games, gardening or visiting a park, there is always an activity to do for anyone.


Principles of Adaptations in disability sports

Lecturer: Stefka Djobova

The aim of the course is to introduce the students with the theoretical constructs of ADAPTATION: Adaptation theory; Normalization theory; Self-determination theory; Empowerment theory. Second goal is to assure that students understand the principles of adsaptation by considering the need for and types of adaptations necessary to assure that individuals with disabilities have access to every opportunity, as well as that they are having equal access and benefit from their participation community recreation activities.

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Addressing each principle will assure that program planners and activity leaders are able to address the real needs of participants with disabilities. Different case studies and role models interactive tasks will be included and discussed in the group.


Accessibility and adapted equipment

Lecturer: Stefka Djobova

ACCESSIBILITY. The aim of the course is to introduce the students with the concept of accessibility in terms of culture of accessibility with special emphasis on architectural ccesibility. According to ASA Policy Report (2011) the phrases ‘access’ and ‘accessibility’ are routinely used in connection with the provision of and opportunities in sport. It’s likely that this term is being used differently, in some cases referring to physical access to a sports centre in others it may be more related to attitudinal access (e.g. being welcomed by staff).

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Broader interpretations may also have been used to reflect the need for better access to knowledge or expertise. It is clear however, that insufficient or inadequate access to provision is a major challenge and one which is given further attention in the sections that follow. Adapted equipment is one of the key elements that facilitate accessibility. Supplying athletes with unique needs with the appropriate specialized equipment for a wide range of athletic disciplines is qrutial for their performance. No matter if ones’ is drawn to sports for their theraputic abilities, recreational enjoyment or the excitement of competition, Adapted Equipment is main contributor to the full enjoyment and maximum personal benefits.


Badminton for persons with disabilities

Lecturer: Aneta Ianeva-Dukova

Principles and models of coaching badminton with people with diabilities. Practical experience of working with people with special needs to develop their physical activity with badminton.

Badminton is still a relative newcomer to the world of sports for the disabled. Badminton for wheelchair users is offered by more than 30 countries as both a leisure/rehabilitation activity and a competitive sport. Badminton was recognised in 1996 by the founders of the International Badminton Association for the Disabled (IBAD). There are now over 40 countries (July 2006) that are members of IBAD.

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Badminton is a fast growing wheelchair sport that can be played by almost all people with disabilities, whatever their level. The rules of adaptive badminton are essentially the same as for the “able bodied” version. Wheelchair badminton is a demonstration sport at the Beijing Paralympic Games and was a competitive sporting event at the 2012 Olympics in London. Badminton is increasing in popularity because it is often played as a recreational activity in backyards. This is one important reason for promoting badminton with people with disabilities. Once the skills of badminton are learned, an individual can take part in the sport with family and friends. Badminton can be easily adapted to fit the activity needs of all people with disabilities. It is important to focus on individual improvement and personal best of their ability. Badminton is also in the program of Deaflympics Game since 1985. Who plays Badminton ? At a recreational level everyone can play badminton and there are player pathways to international level in the following groups:

  • Players with a sensory impairment
  • Players with a Physical disability – ambulant and wheelchair users
  • Players with a Learning disability
  • Players with dwarfism


LIFESTYLE OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

Lecturer: Prof Piero Portincasa

Following the correct definition and assessment of “impairment” and “disability” by mean of appropriate diagnostic tool, the role of the medical personnel is to document the individual’s health problem with relation to functional limitations. A first step is the determination of medical impairment and its impact on the ability to perform activities of daily living. Interaction between the subject with disability and the surrounding environment should be considered. Further, the medical personnel is called to depict the best interventional ways to prevent health problems in people with impairment or disabilities, similarly to what is requested for the general population.

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Clear goals in terms of lifestyles (including appropriate dietary regimens and physical activity) will need to be fixed. Such rules need to be applied to all ages, keeping in mind that exposure to disease linked to bad habits (e.g. inappropriate diet, sedentary life), is longer and therefore risk is greater at a younger age.

Having fixed the goals, the primary purpose of rehabilitation is to enable people to function at the highest possible level in spite of physical impairment. Such a programme must include a vast array of interventions with the help of different groups of experts which are entitled to guarantee a continuum of care. In the case of lifestyles, the group is composed by medical personnels, trainers, dietitians, biologists, nurses, and technical personnel. A multidisciplinary team is the base of success, and overlapping expertises must be emphasized.

Appropriate interventional programs will help improving quality of life and reducing the overall burden of cardiovascular risk, other disease risks, and old age disabilities [3].

Physical therapy is aimed at improving the deleterious risk of sedentary life, muscle atrophy and fat accumulation. Dietary advice should be an integral part of the programme, to balance different ingredients, maintain appropriate daily caloric intake, and to reach or keep ideal body weight. A “healthy pyramid food” including balanced physical exercise and diet should be constructed for all countries and cultural backgrounds.


EXERCISE AND FITNESS IN THE PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

Lecturer: Prof Piero Portincasa

One emerging global health problem worldwide is the epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. This condition is associated to obesity and/or particularly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance (with abnormalities in on peripheral glucose and fatty acid utilization) and potential evolution to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additional associated conditions are the liver steatosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. The deleterious association of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia, and adipocyte cytokines (adipokines) may also lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction, abnormal lipid profile, hypertension, and vascular inflammation. Taken together, these are all factors predisposing to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Key points in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome are therefore the maintainance of ideal weight (or wight reduction to ideal weight) better with an healthy diet, and regular physical exercice. The rule must apply also to people with impairment or disabilities.

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Physical activity Physical inactivity per se represents a global health problem worldwide. This is particularly true in developed countries and among women, older persons, those with lower incomes, and in case of impairment and disabilities. Physical activity is defined as bodily movement that is produced by skeletal muscle contraction. This activity substantially increases energy expenditure. By contrast, exercise (which is a type of physical activity), is defined as a planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness (eg, muscle strength, flexibility, balance).

The importance of regular physical exercise is clear: moderate and/or vigorous exercise is associated with several beneficial health outcomes, including a decreased risk of obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and all-cause mortality. Exercise may also increase the likelihood of stopping tobacco use; reduce disability for activities of daily living in older persons; delay cognitive decline in older adults; and reduce stress, anxiety, and depression.

Beside beneficial effects, there are some risks connected to physical exercise: musculoskeletal injury is the most common risk of exercise. More serious, but less common, risks include arrhythmia, sudden cardiac arrest, and myocardial infarction. Having said that, it is clear that the benefits of exercise outweigh the potential risks. In asymptomatic, low-risk patients, a screening medical evaluation for coronary heart disease prior to starting exercise is not necessary. Reccommendations are that all healthy adults should incorporate moderate to vigorous exercise into their “diet” (lifestyle). This policy implies the development of moderate intensity exercise for 150 minutes a week, vigorous intensity exercise for 75 minutes a week, or an equivalent combination of these activities. Reccommendations are also valid for elderly adults: i.e. those with limited exercise capacity due to comorbidity should stay as physically active as their condition allows. Indeed, physical activity brings benefits to people of all ages while decreasing all-cause morbidity and increase lifespan.

If chronic conditions, impairment and disabilities are present, some physical activity is still advisable, whenever it is possible, since this policy is still associated with some health benefit.

Healthy diet Lifestyles must also include the use of a healthy diet, and maintaining caloric balance over time is important to maintain healthy weight. Balancing caloric intake requires that many individuals decrease their typical calorie consumption while also engaging in physical activity. Calculating total energy expenditure for recommended daily caloric intake is based on age, sex, weight, and activity level. Caloric intake should be proportioned among the three macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Macronutrients are the chemical compounds consumed in the largest quantities and provide bulk energy. Micronutrients are nutrients required in small amounts and include several minerals and vitamins. In particular, the way to take vitamins, salt and minerals is a key point to avoid the risk of hypertension. The main food groups generally consist of fruits/vegetables, grains, dairy products, and meat/protein-rich foods. Individuals should be counseled to consume five or more servings of fruits and/or vegetables daily. Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of fiber, and fruit/vegetable consumption is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality. Individuals should be advised to replace refined grains (eg, white bread, white rice, refined and sweetened cereals) with whole grains (eg, whole wheat bread, brown rice, whole grain cereals or oatmeal), which have higher fiber content. Refined grains are associated with long-term weight gain. Individuals should also be advised to replace fat-full milk products (eg, whole milk, ice cream) with fat-free or low-fat milk products (eg, skim milk, yogurt). Saturated and trans fatty acid consumption should be kept as low as possible by limiting foods such as partially hydrogenated oils (eg, stick margarine). Red and processed meats should also be replaced and individuals should be counseled to eat a variety of protein-rich foods, including seafood, lean meat such as poultry, eggs, beans, peas, soy products, and unsalted nuts and seeds. Consumption of red meats and processed meats is associated with increased mortality, while consumption of white meat is associated with decreased mortality. The consumption of soft drinks and other sweetened beverages (eg, fruit drinks) is a major source of added refined sugar in the diet and should be discouraged. Among sugars, fructose is used by food industries as sweetener; its consumption has been dramatically increasing over the past few years, and related to the development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, obesity, and liver steatosis. Regular consumption of fructose, beside the amount taken with daily portions of fruits and vegetables, should be therefore avoided. Low-fat diet, vegetarian diets, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and the Mediterranean diet are among the most commonly-used diets to maintain good health, where weight loss is not necessarily the primary goal. These diets are associated with health benefits. However, it is not known which type of diet is optimal for the general population. The decision to choose one of these diets is generally based on individual preference and the ability to adhere to a given diet. The protective role of the Mediterranean diet with respect to the millenium epidemic (i.e., metabolic syndrome) and associated conditions (gallstone disease, liver steatosis) need to be carefully known on a every-day base.